Tuesday, September 5, 2023

UPSC Essentials — GS 3 (Week 15) Mains answer practice


UPSC CSE Mains 2023 season has started. Could it be said that you are prepared for it? For this week's GS paper 3, here are questions with key points for your responses. Try not to miss focuses to contemplate and reply in the remark box underneath. Give them a shot!

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UPSC Fundamentals brings to you its drive for the act of Mains answer composing. The UPSC Civil Services syllabus, both static and dynamic, is covered in detail in Mains Answer Writing, as are the various GS papers. This answer-composing practice is intended to help you as a worth expansion to your UPSC CSE Mains. Check your progress by writing answers to questions about GS-3 topics today.

Aditya L1 is the main Indian space-based mission to concentrate on the Sun. What are the payloads of the mission? Discuss the Aditya L1's objectives.

Methane is the essential part of flammable gas and is an intense ozone harming substance (GHG) with an unnatural weather change potential (GWP). Examine how we can diminish methane emanations.


— The presentation of the response is fundamental and ought to be limited to 3-5 lines. Keep in mind, a joke is definitely not a standard presentation.

— It might comprise of essential data by giving a few definitions from the confided in source and genuine realities.


— It is the focal piece of the response and one ought to comprehend the interest of the inquiry to give rich substance.

— The response should be ideally composed as a blend of focuses and short sections instead of utilizing long passages or simply focuses.

— Utilizing realities from true government sources makes your response more far reaching. Based on the requirements of the question, analysis is important, but do not overanalyse.

— Underlining catchphrases gives you an edge over different applicants and upgrades show of the response.

— Utilizing flowcharts/tree-outline in the responses saves a lot of time and lifts your score. In any case, it ought to be utilized sensibly and just where it is required.

Way forward/End

— The consummation of the response ought to be optimistically and it ought to have a forward-looking methodology. In any case, assuming you feel that a significant issue should be featured, you might add it in your decision. Do whatever it takes not to rehash any point from body or presentation.

— You can use quotes, findings from national and international surveys, and other sources. in your responses.

Self Assessment

— It is the main piece of our Mains answer composing practice. In order to assist you in evaluating your responses, UPSC Essentials will provide some guiding points or concepts in the form of a thought process.

A general statement about Aditya L1 can serve as a simple introduction to this response.

— The Indian Space Exploration Association (ISRO) sent off Aditya L-1, the main Indian space-based mission to concentrate on the Sun, from the Satish Dhawan Space Center in Sriharikota.

— The sun powered test was conveyed into space by the Polar Satellite Send off Vehicle (PSLV) in 'XL' arrangement. SLV is one of the most dependable and adaptable workhorse rockets of ISRO.

— The PSLV will at first spot the Aditya L-1 in a lower Earth circle. Before reaching a halo orbit around the L1 Lagrange point, the spacecraft's orbit around Earth will be raised multiple times.

(Source: Aditya L-1 send off: Everything you need to know about the mission)

You might consolidate a portion of the accompanying places in the body of your response:

Payloads of the Mission

— The shuttle conveys seven logical payloads for precise investigation of the Sun. All payloads are natively created in a joint effort with different ISRO Focuses.

Apparent Emanation Line Coronagraph

— It is intended to concentrate on sun oriented crown and elements of coronal mass launches.

— The payload is created by the Indian Foundation of Astronomy, Bengaluru in close joint effort with ISRO.

Aditya-L1's primary payload is VELC, a reflective coronagraph with a multi-slit spectrograph.

— Sun based Bright Imaging Telescope (SUIT) to picture the Sun powered Photosphere and Chromosphere in close to Bright (UV) and, to gauge the sun oriented irradiance varieties in close to UV.

— The payload is created by Between College Community for Space science and Astronomy, Pune in close joint effort with ISRO.

— SUIT is an UV telescope to picture the sun oriented circle in the close to bright frequency range.

— Sun based Low Energy X-beam Spectrometer (SoLEXS) and High Energy L1 Circling X-beam Spectrometer (HEL1OS) are intended to concentrate on the X-beam flares from the Sun over a wide X-beam energy range. At the U R Rao Satellite Centre in Bengaluru, these two payloads are developed.

— Aditya-L1's SoLEXS is a soft X-ray spectrometer. In order to investigate solar flares, the payload is intended to measure the solar soft X-ray flux.

— Aditya Sun oriented Breeze Molecule Examination (ASPEX) and Plasma Analyser Bundle for Aditya (Father) payloads are intended to concentrate on the sun powered breeze and vivacious particles, as well as their energy circulation.

— Magnetometer payload is equipped for estimating interplanetary attractive fields at the L1 point. The Laboratory for Electro-Optics Systems in Bengaluru is where the payload is made.

Targets of the Aditya L-1

The fundamental goal of the mission is to extend our insight into the Sun, and how its radiation, heat, stream of particles, and attractive fields influence us. There are different targets that the mission will set out upon:

(I) To concentrate on the upper air layers of the Sun called chromosphere and crown. While the crown is the furthest layer, the chromosphere is simply underneath it.

(ii) To analyze coronal mass launches (CMEs), which are huge ejections of plasma and attractive fields from the Sun's crown.

(iii) To break down the crown's attractive field and the driver of the space climate.

(iv) To comprehend the reason why the Sun's not-really splendid crown is 1,000,000 degree Celsius warm when the temperature on the outer layer of the Sun is just around 5,500 degree Celsius.

(v) To assist researchers with knowing the explanations for the speed increase of particles on the Sun, which prompts the sun based breeze — the consistent progression of particles from the Sun.

(Sources: Aditya L-1 launch, www.isro.gov.in: All you want to be aware of the mission)


Your conclusion ought to be brief. You might include:

— As per ISRO, the Sun "discharges radiation/light in virtually all frequencies alongside different vivacious particles and attractive fields. The climate of the Earth as well as its attractive field goes about as a defensive safeguard and blocks various destructive frequency radiations including particles and fields."

A variety of satellite-dependent operations, including telecommunications, mobile-based Internet services, navigation, power grids, and others, are envisioned to be safeguarded by the mission's intention to produce user-friendly data.

— Among the five Lagrange focuses, L1 is the most preferred to get an unhindered perspective on the Sun. L2 is situated behind the Earth, and consequently impedes the perspective on the Sun, while L3 is behind the Sun which is certainly not an extraordinary situation to speak with Earth. L4 and L5 are great and stable areas, yet are a lot farther from Earth contrasted with L1, which is straightforwardly between the Sun and the Earth.

(Source: The Sun closer up: Aditya-L1 mission and its targets by Anjali Marar)

Focuses to Consider

What is Radiance Circle?

What are Lagrange focuses?

What is space climate?

Related Earlier Year Question

India has accomplished astounding triumphs in automated space missions including the Chandrayaan and Mars Orbiter Mission, however has not wandered into monitored space mission. What are the primary impediments to sending off a monitored space mission, both regarding innovation and coordinated factors? Look at fundamentally. ( 2017)

QUESTION 2: Natural gas's main component, methane, is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) with the potential to cause global warming (GWP). How we can decrease methane outflows?


A general statement about methane can serve as a simple introduction to this response.

— Methane is an ozone depleting substance, which is liable for 30% of the warming since preindustrial times, second just to carbon dioxide. The United Nations Environment Programme found that methane is 80 times more powerful than carbon dioxide at warming over 20 years.

— There are different wellsprings of methane including human and regular sources. Human wellsprings of methane incorporate landfills, oil and petroleum gas frameworks, farming exercises, coal mining, wastewater treatment, and certain modern cycles.

(Source: UPSC Fundamentals: Reports and information on your tips — IEA's Worldwide Methane Tracker 2023 by Manas Srivastava)


You might consolidate a portion of the accompanying places in the body of your response:

Measures to Decrease Methane Discharges

— India has been determined in its obligation to creating and carrying out environmental change approaches. Coming up next are progressing endeavors to restrict methane emanations:

NMSA: The National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture It includes environment versatile practices, for example, methane decrease in rice farming which serves to diminish methane discharges fundamentally.

— Project NICRA (National Innovations in Climate Resilient Agriculture): The Indian Board of Agrarian Exploration (ICAR) has fostered a few innovations with moderation potential for methane from rice viz.

(a) Framework for Rice Heightening: The strategy can possibly improve rice yield from 36-49% with around 22-35% less water than regular relocated rice;

(b) Direct Cultivated Rice: The framework lessens methane emanations as it doesn't include raising nurseries, puddling and relocating. Dissimilar to relocated paddy development, standing water isn't kept up with in this framework and

(c) Yield Broadening System: 

Methane discharges is kept away from because of redirection of paddy to substitute harvests like heartbeats, oilseeds, maize, cotton and agroforestry.

Across the nation, Krishi Vigyan Kendras run capacity-building programs to raise awareness of climate-resilient practices.

— Public Domesticated animals Mission: It incorporates Breed Improvement and Adjusted Apportioning. Taking care of better quality adjusted apportions to creatures assists with limiting methane outflows from animals. The Public authority of India likewise advances for green grub creation, silage making, refuse cutting, and absolute blended apportion.

— Gobar (Electrifying Natural Bio-Agro Assets) - Dhan' plot: It upholds biodegradable waste recuperation and transformation of waste into assets and decrease of methane emanations.

(Sources: What is GOBAR-Dhan Yojana?, pib.gov.in, http://www.globalmethane.org)


Your conclusion ought to be brief. You might include:

— Sultan Ahmed Al Jaber, the Designated President of COP 28, urged the oil and gas industry to phase out methane emissions by 2030 and support comprehensive net-zero emission plans by or before 2050.

— As indicated by the Paris-based Worldwide Energy Organization (IEA), methane emanations are among the top reasons for an Earth-wide temperature boost. Petroleum derivative tasks create more than 33% of all methane outflows from human movement. Accordingly, activity on methane is viewed as perhaps of the best measure the energy area can take to moderate environmental change.

(Source: Sukalp Sharma's (Points to Consider Global Methane Pledge Global Methane Initiative Waste to Energy) article "COP28 president-designate urges oil industry to phase out methane emissions by 2030 and eliminate carbon intensity"

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